STIGQter STIGQter: STIG Summary: MS SQL Server 2014 Instance Security Technical Implementation Guide Version: 1 Release: 9 Benchmark Date: 26 Oct 2018: SQL Server must generate Trace or Audit records when unsuccessful attempts to add privileges/permissions occur.

DISA Rule

SV-82413r2_rule

Vulnerability Number

V-67923

Group Title

SRG-APP-000495-DB-000327

Rule Version

SQL4-00-036100

Severity

CAT II

CCI(s)

Weight

10

Fix Recommendation

Where SQL Server Trace is in use, define and enable a trace that captures all auditable events. The script provided in the supplemental file Trace.sql can be used to do this.

Create triggers to raise a custom event on each locally-defined security table that requires tracking of Insert-Update-Delete operations. The examples provided in the supplemental file CustomTraceEvents.sql can serve as the basis for these.

Add blocks of code to Trace.sql for each custom event class (integers in the range 82-91; the same event class may be used for all such triggers) used in these triggers. Execute Trace.sql.

Where SQL Server Audit is in use, design and deploy a SQL Server Audit that captures all auditable events. The script provided in the supplemental file Audit.sql can be used for this.

Alternatively, to add the necessary data capture to an existing server audit specification, run the script:
USE [master];
GO
ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION <server_audit_specification_name> WITH (STATE = OFF);
GO
ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION <server_audit_specification_name>
ADD (DATABASE_OBJECT_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP),
ADD (DATABASE_OBJECT_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP),
ADD (DATABASE_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP),
ADD (DATABASE_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP),
ADD (DATABASE_ROLE_MEMBER_CHANGE_GROUP),
ADD (SCHEMA_OBJECT_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP),
ADD (SCHEMA_OBJECT_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP),
ADD (SERVER_OBJECT_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP),
ADD (SERVER_OBJECT_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP),
ADD (SERVER_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP),
ADD (SERVER_ROLE_MEMBER_CHANGE_GROUP)
;
GO
ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION <server_audit_specification_name> WITH (STATE = ON);
GO

Check Contents

If neither SQL Server Audit nor SQL Server Trace is in use for audit purposes, this is a finding.

Obtain the list of locally-defined security tables, procedures and functions (if any) that require tracking.

If SQL Server Trace is in use for audit purposes, verify that all required events are being audited. From the query prompt:
SELECT * FROM sys.traces;

All currently defined traces for the SQL server instance will be listed.

If no traces are returned, this is a finding.

Determine the trace(s) being used for the auditing requirement.
In the following, replace # with a trace ID being used for the auditing requirements.
From the query prompt:
SELECT DISTINCT(eventid) FROM sys.fn_trace_geteventinfo(#);

The following required event IDs should all be among those listed; if not, this is a finding:

42 -- SP:Starting
43 -- SP:Completed
82-91 -- User-defined Event (required only where there are locally-defined security tables or procedures)
102 -- Audit Database Scope GDR
103 -- Audit Object GDR Event
104 -- Audit AddLogin Event
105 -- Audit Login GDR Event
108 -- Audit Add Login to Server Role Event
109 -- Audit Add DB User Event
110 -- Audit Add Member to DB Role Event
111 -- Audit Add Role Event
162 -- User error message
170 -- Audit Server Scope GDR Event
171 -- Audit Server Object GDR Event
172 -- Audit Database Object GDR Event
173 -- Audit Server Operation Event
177 -- Audit Server Principal Management Event

Review the locally-defined security tables (if any) for the existence of triggers to raise a custom event on each Insert-Update-Delete operation.

If such triggers are not present, this is a finding.


If SQL Server Audit is in use, proceed as follows.

The basic SQL Server Audit configuration provided in the supplemental file Audit.sql uses broad, server-level audit action groups for this purpose. SQL Server Audit's flexibility makes other techniques possible. If an alternative technique is in use and demonstrated effective, this is not a finding.

Determine the name(s) of the server audit specification(s) in use.

To look at audits and audit specifications, in Management Studio's object explorer, expand
<server name> >> Security >> Audits
and
<server name> >> Security >> Server Audit Specifications.
Also,
<server name> >> Databases >> <database name> >> Security >> Database Audit Specifications.

Alternatively, review the contents of the system views with "audit" in their names.

Run the following code to verify that all GRANT, ALTER SERVER ROLE . . . ADD MEMBER . . ., and/or ALTER ROLE . . . ADD MEMBER . . . actions, all INSERT and UPDATE actions on any locally-defined permissions tables, and all EXECUTE actions on any system or locally-defined permissions-related procedures and functions, are being audited:
USE [master];
GO
SELECT * FROM sys.server_audit_specification_details WHERE server_specification_id =
(SELECT server_specification_id FROM sys.server_audit_specifications WHERE [name] = '<server_audit_specification_name>')
AND audit_action_name IN
(
'DATABASE_OBJECT_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP',
'DATABASE_OBJECT_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP',
'DATABASE_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP',
'DATABASE_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP',
'DATABASE_ROLE_MEMBER_CHANGE_GROUP',
'SCHEMA_OBJECT_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP',
'SCHEMA_OBJECT_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP',
'SERVER_OBJECT_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP',
'SERVER_OBJECT_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP',
'SERVER_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP',
'SERVER_ROLE_MEMBER_CHANGE_GROUP',
'SCHEMA_OBJECT_ACCESS_GROUP'
);
GO

Examine the list produced by the query.

If any locally-defined permissions tables, procedures, or functions exist, and the list does not include the audit action group SCHEMA_OBJECT_ACCESS_GROUP, this is a finding.

If any of the other audit action groups specified in the WHERE clause are not included in the list, this is a finding.

If the audited_result column is not "FAILURE" or "SUCCESS AND FAILURE" on every row, this is a finding.

Vulnerability Number

V-67923

Documentable

False

Rule Version

SQL4-00-036100

Severity Override Guidance

If neither SQL Server Audit nor SQL Server Trace is in use for audit purposes, this is a finding.

Obtain the list of locally-defined security tables, procedures and functions (if any) that require tracking.

If SQL Server Trace is in use for audit purposes, verify that all required events are being audited. From the query prompt:
SELECT * FROM sys.traces;

All currently defined traces for the SQL server instance will be listed.

If no traces are returned, this is a finding.

Determine the trace(s) being used for the auditing requirement.
In the following, replace # with a trace ID being used for the auditing requirements.
From the query prompt:
SELECT DISTINCT(eventid) FROM sys.fn_trace_geteventinfo(#);

The following required event IDs should all be among those listed; if not, this is a finding:

42 -- SP:Starting
43 -- SP:Completed
82-91 -- User-defined Event (required only where there are locally-defined security tables or procedures)
102 -- Audit Database Scope GDR
103 -- Audit Object GDR Event
104 -- Audit AddLogin Event
105 -- Audit Login GDR Event
108 -- Audit Add Login to Server Role Event
109 -- Audit Add DB User Event
110 -- Audit Add Member to DB Role Event
111 -- Audit Add Role Event
162 -- User error message
170 -- Audit Server Scope GDR Event
171 -- Audit Server Object GDR Event
172 -- Audit Database Object GDR Event
173 -- Audit Server Operation Event
177 -- Audit Server Principal Management Event

Review the locally-defined security tables (if any) for the existence of triggers to raise a custom event on each Insert-Update-Delete operation.

If such triggers are not present, this is a finding.


If SQL Server Audit is in use, proceed as follows.

The basic SQL Server Audit configuration provided in the supplemental file Audit.sql uses broad, server-level audit action groups for this purpose. SQL Server Audit's flexibility makes other techniques possible. If an alternative technique is in use and demonstrated effective, this is not a finding.

Determine the name(s) of the server audit specification(s) in use.

To look at audits and audit specifications, in Management Studio's object explorer, expand
<server name> >> Security >> Audits
and
<server name> >> Security >> Server Audit Specifications.
Also,
<server name> >> Databases >> <database name> >> Security >> Database Audit Specifications.

Alternatively, review the contents of the system views with "audit" in their names.

Run the following code to verify that all GRANT, ALTER SERVER ROLE . . . ADD MEMBER . . ., and/or ALTER ROLE . . . ADD MEMBER . . . actions, all INSERT and UPDATE actions on any locally-defined permissions tables, and all EXECUTE actions on any system or locally-defined permissions-related procedures and functions, are being audited:
USE [master];
GO
SELECT * FROM sys.server_audit_specification_details WHERE server_specification_id =
(SELECT server_specification_id FROM sys.server_audit_specifications WHERE [name] = '<server_audit_specification_name>')
AND audit_action_name IN
(
'DATABASE_OBJECT_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP',
'DATABASE_OBJECT_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP',
'DATABASE_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP',
'DATABASE_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP',
'DATABASE_ROLE_MEMBER_CHANGE_GROUP',
'SCHEMA_OBJECT_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP',
'SCHEMA_OBJECT_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP',
'SERVER_OBJECT_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP',
'SERVER_OBJECT_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP',
'SERVER_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP',
'SERVER_ROLE_MEMBER_CHANGE_GROUP',
'SCHEMA_OBJECT_ACCESS_GROUP'
);
GO

Examine the list produced by the query.

If any locally-defined permissions tables, procedures, or functions exist, and the list does not include the audit action group SCHEMA_OBJECT_ACCESS_GROUP, this is a finding.

If any of the other audit action groups specified in the WHERE clause are not included in the list, this is a finding.

If the audited_result column is not "FAILURE" or "SUCCESS AND FAILURE" on every row, this is a finding.

Check Content Reference

M

Target Key

2639

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